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Aspects related to the use of electronic money
Normal commercial operation today in the Internet - purchase information (text, graphics, etc.), software, or services (eg, proper access to Internet). It is traditional to use for this purpose credit cards. However, for small purchases, which in Internet 99,9% this method is neither comfortable nor safe. Currently, buying, for example, in the Internet for $ 1 a text file with the necessary information, the buyer must provide the seller (which he usually does not know and trust who is not entitled) all information about your card and of themselves, including number and expiry date of the card, your name and address. Minimum, the buyer risks in this case, is that his card will be removed instead of $ 1, a little more, well, maximum - is that the card will remove a lot more money than even it was (and in the middle on the card is several thousand dollars), and the customer data will be distributed throughout all comers.
Honest seller while also hard times - he can not be sure that the data on the card and its owner, which he presents to customers through the Web, not stolen, and he will not have some time to return the money taken by a card with a stolen number and in addition pay a fine your bank (such fine may, for example, is $ 25 for each transaction refund - chargeback. therefore we can not recognize the validity of classifying U.S. banks and card transactions through the network to risky - accordingly they collected from these sellers fee is set and a half to two times higher normal).
There is a clear niche for the use of other payment schemes in the Internet, free of the above disadvantages. These schemes are implemented with the use of electronic money that can be both encrypted and digitally signed by fraud (but not copy) the support of face value - data set and writing to a virtual bank accounts with protected access.
Aspects related to the use of electronic money
The right to privacy
The right to confidentiality of purchase - a natural right that every time we use, cash in the store. No you did not ask for in this case, who are you, what is your name and where you live. Nobody inform your bank that you bought and how much. Recognize and appreciate that the right to start trying to buy some small change in the Internet on the card. Other way to exercise the right to privacy on the Internet, except for the use of electronic money, no.
Tax minimization and simplification of accounting transactions
Simple question - if the company is registered in one country, manufactured in another software, selling it through a company - CPU operations with electronic money Internet, registered in a third country, the buyer of the four countries, who, in what country and what taxes to pay? It must be borne in mind that the specific types of electronic money may not be recognized as an official means of payment and, therefore, revenue in the money will be recognized as a cash income for as long as the electronic money will not be exchanged for real money.
And another interesting example. The company - mobile operator serves many clients in the country, a lot of monthly processing of incoming payments from customers and do pay the appropriate taxes. Starting to use the services of a foreign company - CPU operations with electronic money, the company begins to accumulate charges its customers electronic money in the accounts of such firm - the processor and where necessary translation of the funds in their accounts in real money. However, except for simplifying accounting (due to the fact that the company instead of the masses of customer payments for services received single consolidated payments, having, however, all the information on payments of its customers from the company - the processor), the company is able to manage your taxes, it is legitimately minimizing it - because it can control the size and the periods of the proceeds of a foreign company - the processor. These examples indicate that the taxation of such transactions - not an easy question, and almost certainly not a solution exists in the field of taxation of property transactions, and their results - obtained funds in real money, goods purchased.
Control of international money transfers
Such control is absent in many civilized countries, and the rest is clearly visible trend to liberalization. Development of financial transactions on the Internet will speed up the process and the complete elimination of such control, at least in the area of retail operations.
Money issue and control of
Commonly used for electronic money issues - whether increasing the size of e-money issuance of money in the country and whether these emissions lead to higher inflation.
The U.S. Congressional Budget Office said in a report in June 1996 that the issue of electronic money by private companies could adversely affect the ability of the Federal Reserve to control the money supply and control it. This is a potential risk and issue electronic money to non-depository institutions that are not required to report to the Federal Reserve. However, we believe that most fears is hardly justified and explained by lack of understanding of the nature of electronic money. Assessing the implications of a potential e-money in circulation, it is necessary to bear in mind the following:
· If the liquidity of electronic money issued by a private company, is not supported by the state, the fear on the part of public authorities on the stability of the monetary system completely useless - do not worry the U.S. government that the currency some small banana republic suddenly appear in their use and affect the size of the money supply. Moreover, it is now clear that the expansion of the dollar in Russia led not to the weakening and strengthening of the national currency and the strengthening of the currency. On the contrary, the general dollarization - the result of a frailty, and the national currency, and now we can see that with the strengthening of the ruble dollar more displaced from circulation. Ie, for a strong currency are competing currencies little threat to the weak as an incentive to its strengthening.
· Wrong is related to electronic money as a competing alternative to conventional money. Their very appearance caused by the need to provide support for commercial transactions on the Internet, where the use of conventional money is inconvenient or impossible. Therefore should be viewed as complementary electronic money to real money, or as another tool of the trade in the Internet, supplementary cards.
· Electronic money does not increase a lot of money, but obviously increase the rate of treatment - it is primarily a means to accelerate and support operations where the use of conventional money or uncomfortable, or do not apply. Therefore, a slight increase in inflation by accelerating treatment may, however, it is clear that the whole process is positive, because you can not recognize the benefit of controlling inflation through that part of the money can not be used because it is always "on the go" and some operations are not carried out because of their exercise, using existing forms of currency, it is inconvenient or impossible.
The obvious problem with the use of electronic money may occur with their liquidity, which is expressed in the value of real money, and the obligations imposed on the issuer - a similar problem with the use of securities. It follows that the scope of work will need to be regulated, perhaps similar to the existing one on the stock market. Since, as a rule, the practice of new financial instruments are in front, and appropriate regulation is created then it will probably not be able to avoid at least the local hazards associated with the ups and downs of running courses in the circulation of electronic money.
One of the main consequences of the emergence of electronic money will be the internationalization of currency, as electronic money allow unimpeded making international retail operations. At present, the Internet for such transactions are used primarily credit cards, that is unsafe for both buyers and sellers. The extensive efforts of the world card payment systems to ensure the safe use of plastic cards in the Internet (the best known project in this area is the introduction of a standard Secure Electronic Transactions - SET) course will give the result, but in this context it should be noted that pulling the ears of traditional long-standing magnetic card technology to the Internet is clearly less promising than the development of models of electronic money, initially focused on the use of the web (and, perhaps using smart cards to authenticate the owner of the e-money and / or storage of electronic money electronic purse cards).
More recently, the issue of security in the Internet was quite sharp. However, the growing commercialization of the use of Internet has led to the fact that leading companies - suppliers of software models, including Microsoft and Netscape, have focused their efforts on creating the software allows for secure transactions over the Internet, and today the safest solutions for commerce on the Internet already exist. The standard solution is to use the technology SSL, based on the cryptographic algorithm RSA.
The legal framework
The situation is different in different countries, but the overall conclusion - the legislation is virtually absent, particularly in relation to international operations with electronic money, which will dominate the Internet, because today the implementation of a simple purchase transaction file with color reproductions of paintings by the buyer and seller are often from different countries. The most advanced legislation in the U.S., where there is a detailed Federal Act "On electronic money transfers," but specifics related to the use of electronic money is supposed to take into account future changes and amendments to this document.
E-money and e-commerce
Assessment of current sales in the Internet and their dynamics, cited Forrester Research, Gartner Group and IDC, show that these volumes in Europe will increase from $ 1 billion in 1997 to $ 67 billion in 2002, in the world - with $ 8 billion in 1997 to $ 327 billion in 2002. Dynamics more than impressive.
Currently, however, e-commerce on the Internet is clearly constrained by the fact that the use of electronic money and the safe use of plastic cards is not widespread. Basically you are using a plastic card numbers from the buyer to the seller, the shortcomings of this method described above. Also very difficult to get a bank credit card merchant account - an account allows merchants to accept cards over the Internet. Due to increased risk of the business, not every bank agrees to provide such services. The use of payment schemes using electronic money instead of plastic cards, as well as schemes safe use of plastic cards will at minimum cost and with almost no formalities to enter the market many small vendors. This will also attract a lot of customers, and who can not decide today to use the card in Internet because of well-justified doubts about the safety of such operations.
Electronic money and plastic cards
Due to the above e-money limit the use of plastic cards to the Internet. This is the case on the existing magnetic cards of international payment systems - the same application smart cards for authentication and storage of electronic money will definitely grow. The only argument for the use of plastic cards in the existing Internet - use one (card) account for operations inside and outside the Internet is not convincing - First, almost every (Western) consumers have several, not one card, respectively, with different accounts for each and it does not seem to inconvenience anyone, and secondly, in order to diversify the risk of using different accounts for different uses is justified.
Electronic money and ATM
Electronic money will use ATMs unconventional way - to get cash without using credit cards. Inside each ATM is your personal computer, which is connected to the Internet will allow owners of electronic money exchange them for cash, taking advantage of the operations for the display and keyboard of the ATM.
Electronic money and checks
Electronic money can be an alternative to checks, in particular road. The scheme is simple - put in a bank computer with access to Internet. Any holder of electronic money, using them carries (provides) a bank electronic money, in return for the relevant amount in cash, net of bank commissions.
Electronic money and money transfers of individuals
Similarly, can be implemented and transfers of individuals. Electronic money is sent to the Internet from one owner to another, then you can get it in cash described above.
Naturally, all the above mentioned methods of electronic money require infrastructure to service them - cash advance, sellers, taking the money. However, the creation of each of the elements of this infrastructure will cost significantly less than the creation of traditional elements - cash advance on cards and checks, emissions and ensuring the security of cards, checks, etc.
Some payment systems in Internet
Mondex - electronic cash system that combines the features of traditional cash with the convenience of electronic payments. Electronic cash can be downloaded to a smart card through a computer network. The map can be used as payment for the web, and through off the receiver.
CyberCash offers payment solutions for credit cards, micropayments - CyberCoin ® Service and (for U.S. customers) Interactive Billing - the online payment system accounts.
Technology solutions for digital cash payment system.
Security First Network Bank - really the first bank serving customers (U.S.) only through the Internet.
First Virtual (http://www.firstvirtual.com)
Payment system that avoids complex security systems that use e-mail for confirmation of payment transactions from customers.
Payment System Instant!
Payment System Instant!, Sega processing system that allows bank customers to make settlements in the on-line through the Internet.
Payment System consists of:
processing subsystem, processing operations on virtual customer accounts and providing customers with information on the operation;
preprotsessingovoy subsystem recording card holders and generating safe transactions on plastic cards to send to the processing center;
CyberMall (online store), which allows sellers of goods and services fully automatically sell their products on-line;
API that implements the relationship between payment systems and automated banking systems;
clearing subsystem implements interbank settlements in case payment system is used by several banks.
Electronic money and
survival strategy for banks
Sunset era of bank branches
This is a great name for this section, I came up with myself, and took it from the title in one famous western edition, published a few years ago. Policy content of offices, with their high costs and low profitability, is sure to be at risk where it is still not there. Small American Mark Twain Bank has received worldwide recognition by implementing electronic money DigiCash. A small local bank Cardinal Bankshares and now little-known, but they established SFNB (Security First Network Bank) is known to the world as the first bank, serving customers exclusively through Internet.
The new strategy of banking
Keyword new banking strategy, only one - the "technology", and the key principles are only two and they are interrelated:
· No customer goes to the bank, and the bank goes to the client, not just to attract customers to the bank, and the delivery of banking services directly to customers through electronic delivery channels - Banking Delivery Channels
· Constant creation and providing clients with new electronic banking services in line with new technological possibilities.
In accordance with these principles in the near future for mass services customers will not come to the bank at all - they will be able to use bank services related to the opening of accounts, transfer of funds, payment for goods and services directly from the home, office or shop, using the computer or terminal for plastic cards and get cash from an ATM. The above American Security First Network Bank has no office to serve clients annually demonstrating impressive growth in their numbers. Cost savings, it offers very competitive terms of service. The process of restructuring the banking infrastructure has already begun. Who do not have time, that was late.
V.V.Senkevich victor.senkevich @ usa.net
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